BorderlineDisorders.com

Dedicated to the Study and Treatment of Personality Disorders

The Center for Transference-Focused Psychotherapy

Personality Pathology and Transference-Focused Psychotherapy:
An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Research

See also a full list of publications by members of the Personality Disorders Institute.

Phenomenology of Personality Disorders

Yeomans, F.E., Hull, J.W., & Clarkin, J.F. (1994). Risk factors for self-damaging acts in a borderline population. Journal of Personality Disorders, 8(1), 10-16.

Hull, J.W., Yeomans, F., Clarkin, J.F., Li, C., & Goodman, G. (1996). Factors associated with multiple hospitalizations of patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Services, 47, 638-641.

Goodman, G., Hull, J.W., Clarkin, J.F., & Yeomans, F.E. (1999). Childhood antisocial behaviors as predictors of psychotic symptoms and DSM-III-R borderline criteria among inpatients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 13(1), 35-46.

Critchfield, K.L., Levy, K.N., & Clarkin, J.F. (2004). The relationship between impulsivity, aggression, and impulsive-aggression in borderline personality disorder: An empirical analysis of self-report measures. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 555-570.

Critchfield, K.L., Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., & Kernberg, O.F. (2008). Organization of co-occurring Axis II features in BPD. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 185-200.

Hörz-Sagstetter, S., Diamond, D., Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K., Rentrop, M. , Fischer-Kern, M., Cain, N., Doering, S. (2017). Clinical Characteristics of Comorbid Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 31, 1-14.

Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F.E., Kernberg, O.F., & Levy, K.N. (2008).
Refining the borderline personality disorder phenotype through finite mixture modeling: Implications for classification. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22, 313-331.

Critchfield, K.L., Levy, K.N., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg. O.F. (2008). The relational context of aggression in borderline personality disorder: Using adult attachment style to predict forms of hostility. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 67-82.

Leibing, E., Jamrozinski, K., Vormfelde, S.V., Stahl, J., Doering, S. (2008). Dimensions of Personality - Relationship between DSM-IV Personality Disorder Symptoms, the Five-Factor Model, and the Biosocial Model of Personality. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22,101-108.

Rentrop, M., Martius, P., Bauml, J., Buchheim, P., Doering, S., Horz, S. (2010). Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder not participating in a RCT: Are they different? Psychopathology, 43, 369-372.

Fischer-Kern, M., Schuster, P., Kapusta, N.D., Tmej, A., Buchheim, A., Rentrop, M., Buchheim, P., Horz, S., Doering, S., Taubner, S., Fonagy, P. (2010). The Relationship between personality organization, reflective functioning, and psychiatric classification in borderline personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 27, 325-409.

Fischer-Kern, M., Kapusta, N.D., Doering, S., Horz, S., Mikutta, C., Aigner, M. (2011). The Relationship between Personality Organization and Psychiatric Classification in Chronic Pain Patients. Psychopathology, 44, 21-26.

Clarkin, J.F., & De Panfilis, C. (2013). Developing conceptualization of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 201, 1-6.

Schmeck, K., Schluter-Muller, S., Foelsch, P., Doering, S. (2013). The role of identity in the DSM-5 classification of personality disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(1), 27.

Bluml, V., Kapusta, N.D., Doering, S., Brahler, E., Wagner, B., Kersting, A. (2013). Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population. PLoS ONE: 8: e76646. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076646.

Baus, N., Fischer-Kern, M., Naderer, A., Klein, J., Doering, S., Pastner, B., Leithner-Dziubas, K., Plener, P.L., Kapusta, N.D. (2014). Personality organization In borderline patients with a history of suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research, 218, 129-133.

Horz, S., Rentrop, M., Fischer-Kern, M., Schuster, P., Kapusta, N., Buchheim, P., Doering, S. (2010). Strukturniveau und klinischer Schweregrad der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 56(2),136-149.

Sollberger, D., Gremaud-Heitz, D., Riemensohneider, A., Kuchenhoff, J., Dammann, G., Walter, M. (2012). Associations between identity diffusion, Axis II disorder, and psychopathology in inpatients with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology, 45,15-21.

Rentrop, M., Zilker, T., Lederle, A., Birkhoffer, A., Horz, S. (2014). Psychiatric comorbidity and personality structure in patients with polyvalent addiction. Psychopathology, 47,133-40.

Clarkin, J.F., Meehan, K.B., & Lenzenweger, M.F. (2015). Emerging approaches to the conceptualization and treatment of personality disorder. Canadian Psychology, 56(2), 155-167.

Richetin, J., Preti, E., Costantini, G., & De Panfilis, C. (2017). The centrality of affective instability and identity in Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence from network analysis. PloS one, 12(10), e0186695.

Esguevillas, Á., Díaz-Caneja, C. M., Arango, C., Del Rey-Mejías, Á. L., Bernardo, E. G., Delgado, C., ... & Carrasco, J. L. (2018). Personality organization and its association with clinical and functional features in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry research, 262, 393-399.

Di Pierro, R., Costantini, G., Benzi, I. M. A., Madeddu, F., & Preti, E. (in press). Grandiose and entitled, but still fragile: a network analysis of pathological narcissistic traits. Personality and Individual Differences.

The Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO)

Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., Kernberg, O.F., Foelsch, P.A. (2001). The Inventory of Personality Organization: Psychometric properties, factorial composition and criterion relations with affect, aggressive dyscontrol, psychosis-proneness, and self domains in a nonclinical sample. Psychological Assessment, 13, 577-591.

Normandin, L., Sabourin, S., Diguer, L., Dupont, G., Poitras, K., Foelsch, P., & Clarkin, J. (2002). Evaluation de la validite theorique de l'Inventaire de l'organisation de la personanalite. Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 34, 59-65.

Berghuis, H., Kamphuis, J. H., Boedijn, G., & Verheul, R. (2009). Psychometric properties and validity of the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-NL). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 73(1), 44-60.

Ellison, W. D., & Levy, K. N. (2012). Factor structure of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a nonclinical sample using exploratory structural equation modeling. Psychological assessment, 24(2), 503-517.

Lenzenweger, M.F., McClough, J.F., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2012). Exploring the interface of neurobehaviorally linked personality dimensions and personality organization in borderline personality disorder : The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and Inventory of Personality Organization. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26, 902-918.

Verreault, M., Sabourin, S., Lussier, Y., Normandin, L., & Clarkin, J. F. (2013). Assessment of personality organization in couple relationships: Factorial structure of the inventory of personality organization and incremental validity over neuroticism. Journal of personality assessment, 95(1), 85-95.

Zimmermann, J., Benecke, C., Hörz, S., Rentrop, M., Peham, D., Bock, A., Wallner, T., Schauenburg, H., Frommer, J, Huber, D, Clarkin, J. F., & Dammann, G. (2013). Validierung einer deutschsprachigen 16-item-version des inventars der persönlichkeitsorganisation (IPO-16). Diagnostica, 59, 3-16.

Preti, E., Prunas, A., De, P. C., Marchesi, C., Madeddu, F., & Clarkin, J. F. (2015). The facets of identity: personality pathology assessment through the Inventory of Personality Organization. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment, 6, 129-140.

Preti, E., Rottoli, C., Dainese, S., Di Pierro, R., Rancati, F., & Madeddu, F. (2015). Personality Structure Features Associated with Early Dropout in Patients with Substance-Related Disorders and Comorbid Personality Disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 13(4), 536-547.

Zimmermann, J., Benecke, C., Horz-Sagstetter, S., Dammann, G. (2015): Normierung der deutschsprachigen 16-Item-Version des Inventars der Persönlichkeitsorganisation (IPO-16). Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 61, 5-15.

Konig, K., Dahlbender, R.W., Holzinger, A., Topitz, A., Doering, S. (2016). Kreuzvalidierung von drei Fragebögen zur Strukturdiagnostik: BPI, IUPO und OPD-SF. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 62,177-189.

Scherg, N., Karcher, A., Zimmermann, J., & Hörz-Sagstetter, S. (2017). Beeinflusst das Strukturniveau den Erfolg tagesklinischer Behandlung? Ergebnisse einer Längsschnittuntersuchung [Does Personality Organization Influence Day Clinic Treatment Success? Results of a Longitudinal Study]. Psychother Psychosom.Med.Psychol, 67, 491-494.

The Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

Hörz, S. (2007): A Prototype of Borderline Personality Organization. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac.

Stern, B.L., Caligor, E., Clarkin, J.F., Critchfield, K.L., Horz, S., MacCornack, V., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2010). Structured interview of personality organization (STIPO): Preliminary psychometrics in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 35-44.

Preti, E., Prunas, A., Sarno, I., & De Panfilis C. (2012). Proprietà psicometriche della STIPO [Psychometric properties of the STIPO]. In: F. Madeddu & E. Preti (Eds.), La diagnosi strutturale di personalità secondo il modello di O.F. Kernberg. La versione italiana della Structured Interview of Personality Organization (pp. 59-84). Milano: Raffaello Cortina.

Horz, S., Clarkin, J.F., Stern, B.L., & Caligor, E. (2012). The Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) : An instrument to assess severity and change of personality pathology. In : Levy, R.A., Ablon, J.S., & Kachele, H. (Eds.), Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research. New York : Humana Press.

Doering, S., Burgmer, M., Heuft, G., Menke, D., Bäumer, B., Lübking, M., Feldmann, M., Hörz, S., & Schneider, G. (2013). Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). BMC psychiatry, 13, 210-222.

Di Pierro, R., Preti, E., Vurro, N., & Madeddu, F. (2014). Dimensions of personality structure among patients with substance use disorders and co-occurring personality disorders: a comparison with psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55, 1398-1404.

Ferrer, M., Andion, O., Calvo, N., Hörz, S., Fischer-Kern, M., Kapusta, N. D., Schneider, G., Clarkin, J. F., & Doering, S. (2018). Clinical Components of Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Functioning. Psychopathology, 51, 57-64.

Hörz-Sagstetter S, Caligor E, Preti E, Stern BL, De Panfilis C, Clarkin JF (2018). Clinician-Guided Assessment of Personality Using the Structural Interview and the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(1), 30-42.

Clarkin JF, Caligor E (2018). Measurement of personality disorder domains of dysfunction in clinical practice. Personlichkeitsstorungen Theorie and Therapie, 4, 259-268

Kampe, L., Zimmermann, J., Bender, D., Caligor, E., Borowski, A., Ehrenthal, J., Benecke, C. & Hörz-Sagstetter, S. (in press). Comparison of the Structured DSM-5 Clinical Interview for the Level of Personality Functioning Scale with the Structured Interview of Personality Organization. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Preti, E., Di Pierro, R., Costantini, G., Benzi, I. M., De Panfilis, C., & Madeddu, F. (in press). Using the Structured Interview of Personality Organization for DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Rating Performed by Inexperienced Raters. Journal of personality assessment.

The Interview of Personality Organization Processes in Adolescence (IPOP-A) and Adolescence Research

Ammaniti, M., Fontana, A., Clarkin, A., F Clarkin, J., Nicolais, G., & Kernberg, O. F. (2012). Assessment of adolescent personality disorders through the interview of personality organization processes in adolescence (IPOP-A): Clinical and theoretical implications. Adolescent Psychiatry, 2(1), 36-45.

Ammaniti, M., Fontana, A., & Nicolais, G. (2015). Borderline personality disorder in adolescence through the lens of the interview of personality organization processes in adolescence (IPOP-A): Clinical use and implications. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 14(1), 82-97.

Clarkin, A., Ammaniti, M., & Fontana, A. (2015). The Use of A Psychodynamic Semi-Structured Personality Assessment Interview in School Settings. Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(4), 237-244.

Ensink, K., Biberdzic, M., Normandin, L., & Clarkin, J. (2015). A developmental psychopathology and neurobiological model of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 14(1), 46-69.

Normandin, L., & Costa, X. (2016). Trabajando con los padres en Psicoterapia Focalizada en la Transferencia para adolescentes. Rev. psicopatol. salud ment. niño adolesc, (28), 45-54.

Ensink, K., Rousseau, M. E., Biberdzic, M., Bégin, M., & Normandin, L. (2017). Reflective functioning and personality Organization: Associations with negative maternal behaviors. Infant mental health journal, 38(3), 351-362.

Biberdzic, M., Ensink, K., Normandin, L., & Clarkin, J. F. (2017). Psychometric properties of the inventory of personality organization for adolescents. Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(2), 127-151.

Fontana, A., De Panfilis, C., Casini, E., Preti, E., Richetin, J., & Ammaniti, M. (2018). Rejection sensitivity and psychopathology symptoms in early adolescence: The moderating role of personality organization. Journal of adolescence, 67, 45-54.

Biberdzic, M., Ensink, K., Normandin, L., & Clarkin, J. F. (2018). Empirical typology of adolescent personality organization. Journal of adolescence, 66, 31-48.

Benzi, I. M., Preti, E., Di Pierro, R., Clarkin, J. F., & Madeddu, F. (in press). Maladaptive personality traits and psychological distress in adolescence: The moderating role of personality functioning. Personality and Individual Differences.

Attachment Theory and Related Research

Diamond, D., Clarkin, J.F., Levine, H., Levy, K., Foelsch, P., & Yeomans, F. (1999). Borderline conditions and attachment: A preliminary report. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19(5), 831-884.

Hoermann, S., Clarkin, J.F., Hull, J.W., & Fertuck, E.A. (2004). Attachment dimensions as predictors of medical hospitalizations in individuals with DSM IV cluster B personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 595-603.

Critchfield, K.L., Levy, K.N., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2008). The relational context of aggression in borderline personality disorder : Using adult attachment style to predict forms of hostility. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 67-82.

Diamond, D., Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., & Kernberg, O.F. (2008). The reciprocal impact of attachment and Transferece-Focused Psychotherapy with borderline patients. In : H. Steele & M. Steele (Eds.), Clinical applications of the adult attachment interview. New York : Guilford Press, pp. 270-294.

Kernberg, O.F., Diamond, D., Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., & Levy, K.N. (2008). Mentalization and attachment in borderline patients in transference focused psychotherapy. In : E.L. Jurist, A.Slade, & S. Bergner (Eds.), Mind to mind: Infant research, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis. New York : Other Press, pp. 167-201.

Diamond, D., Levy, K.N., Clarkin, J.F., Doering, S., Cain, N., Fischer-Kern, M., Horz, S., Buchheim, A. (2014). Attachment and Mentalization in Female Patients with Co-morbid Narcissistic and Borderline Personality Disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment , 5, 428-433.

Meehan, K. B., Clarkin, J. F., Cain, N. M., & Chiara De Panfilis, M. D. (2018). Attachment, Object Representations, and Object Relations. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 35(2), 254-259.

Neurocognitive Functioning

Posner, M.I., Rothbart M.K., Vizueta, N., Levy, K., Thomas, K.M., & Clarkin, J. (2002). Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99, 16366-16370.

Posner, M.I., Rothbart, M.K., Vizueta, N., Thomas, K.M., Levy, K.N., Fossella, J., Silbersweig, D., Stern, E., Clarkin, J.F., Kernberg, O.F. (2003). An approach to the psychobiology of personality disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 1093-1106.

Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., Fertuck, E.A., & Kernberg, O.F. (2004). Executive neurocognitive functioning and neurobehavioral systems indicators in borderline personality disorder. A preliminary study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 421-438.

Clarkin, J.F., & Posner, M. (2005). Defining the mechanisms of borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology, 38, 56-63.

Fertuck, E.A., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Clarkin, J.F. (2005). The association between attentional and executive controls in the expression of borderline personality disorder features: A preliminary study. Psychopathology, 38, 75-81.

Hoermann, S., Clarkin, J.F., Hull, J.W., & Levy, K.N. (2005). The construct of effortful control: An approach to borderline personality disorder heterogeneity. Psychopathology, 38, 82-86.

Levy, K.N., Meehan, K.B., Reynoso, J.S., Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2005). The relation of reflective function to neurocognitive functioning in patients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 53, 1305-1309.

Fertuck, E.A., Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., Hoermann, S., & Stanley, B. (2006). Executive neurocognition, memory systems, and borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 346-375.

Goldstein, M., Brendel, G., Tuescher, O., Pan, H., Epstein, J., Beutel, M., Yang, Y., Thomas, K., Levy, K., Silverman, M., Clarkin, J., Posner, M., Kernberg, O., Stern, E., & Silbersweig, D. (2007). Neural substrates of the interaction of emotional stimulus processing and motor inhibitory control: An emotional linguistic go/no-go fMRI study. NeuroImage, 36, 1026-1040.

Silbersweig, D., Clarkin, J., Goldstein, M., Kernberg, O., Tuescher, O., Levy, K., Brendel, G., Pan, H., Beutel, M., Epstein, J., Lenzenweger, M., Thomas, K, Posner, M., & Stern, E. (2007). Failure of fronto-limbic inhibitory function in the context of negative emotion in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1832-1841.

This was our first attempt to investigate borderline processing of negative affect using fMRI

Fan, Y., Wonnenberger, C., Enzi, B., De Greck, M., Ulrich, C., Doering, S., Northoff, G. (2011). The narcissistic self and its psychological and neural correlates: An exploratory fMRI study. Psychological Medicine, 41,1640-50.

Doering, S.* Enzi, B.*, Faber, C., Hinrichs, J., Bahmer, J., Northoff, G. (2012). Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures – An Exploratory fMRI Study. PlosONE 7(11): e49956. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049956. *shared first authorship

Enzi, B*, Doering, S*, Faber, C., Hinrichs, J., Bahmer, J., Northoff, G. (2013): Reduced deactivation in reward circuitry and midline structures during emotion processing in borderline personality disorder. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 14, 45-56. *shared first authorship

Perez, D., Vago, D., Pan, H., Root, J., Tuescher, O., Fuchs, B., Leung, L., Epstein, J., Cain, N., Clarkin, J.F., Lenzenweger, M.F., Kernberg, O.F., Levy, K.N., Silbersweig, D., & Stern, E. (2015). Frontolimbic neural circuit changes in emotional processing and inhibitory control associated with clinical improvement following transference-focused psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 70(1), 51-61.

Social Cognition

Fertuck, E.A., Jekal, A., Song, I., Wyman, B., Morris, M.C., Wilson, S.T., Brodsky, B.S., & Stanley, B. (2009). Enhanced “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” in borderline personality disorder compared to healthy controls. Psychological Medicine 39,1979-88.

Fertuck, E.A., Grinband, J., & Stanley, B. (2013). Facial trust appraisal negatively biased in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 207,195-202.

Jobst, A., Albert, A., Bauriedi-Schmidt, C., Mauer, M.C., Renneberg, B., Buchheim, A., Sabass, L., Falkai, P., Zill, P., Padberg, F. (2014). Social exclusion leads to divergent changes of oxytocin levels in Borderline patients and healthy subjects. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 252-254.

De Panfilis, C., Riva, P., Preti, E., Cabrino, C., Marchesi, C. (2015). When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in Borderline Personality Disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment, 6, 301-9.

Jobst, A., Padberg, F., Mauer, M.C., Daltrozzo, T., Bauriedi-Schmidt, C., Sabass, L., Sarubin, N., Falkai, P., Renneberg, B., Zill, P., Gander, M., & Buchheim, A. (2016). Lower oxytocine plasma levels in borderline patients with unresolved attachment representations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 125.

Beeney, J.E., Hallquist, M.N., Ellison, W.D., & Levy, K.N. (2016). Self-other disturbance in borderline personality disorder: neural, self-report and performance-based evidence. Personality Disorders : Theory, Research and Treatment, 7, 28-39.

Weinstein, S.R., Meehan, K.B., Cain, N.M., Ripoli LH, Boussi AR, Papouchis N, Siever LJ, & New AS. (2016). Mental state identification, borderline pathology, and the neglected role of childhood trauma. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment, 7, 61-71.

Meehan, K. B., De Panfilis, C., Cain, N. M., Antonucci, C., Soliani, A., Clarkin, J. F., & Sambataro, F. (2017). Facial emotion recognition and borderline personality pathology. Psychiatry research, 255, 347-354.

Richetin, J., Poggi, A., Ricciardelli, P., Fertuck, E. A., & Preti, E. (2018). The emotional components of rejection sensitivity as a mediator between borderline personality disorder and biased appraisal of trust in faces. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(4), 200-205.

Di Pierro, R., Di Sarno, M., Preti, E., Di Mattei, V. E., & Madeddu, F. (2018). The role of identity instability in the relationship between narcissism and emotional empathy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 35(2), 237-243.

De Panfilis, C., Antonucci, C., Meehan, K. B., Cain, N. M., Soliani, A., Marchesi, C., ... & Sambataro, F. (in press). Facial Emotion Recognition and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Narcissistic Features. Journal of personality disorders.

Effortful Control

Hoermann, S., Clarkin, J.F., Hull, J.W., & Levy, K.N. (2005). The construct of effortful control: An approach to borderline personality disorder heterogeneity. Psychopathology, 38, 82-86.

De Panfilis, C., Meehan, K.B., Cain, N.M., & Clarkin, J.F. (2013). The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 454-61.

Meehan, K.B., De Panfilis, C., Cain, N.M., & Clarkin, J.F. (2013). Effortful control and externalizing problems in young adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 553-58.

Cain, N.M., De Panfilis, C., Meehan, K.B., & Clarkin, J.F. (2013). Assessing interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels of effortful control. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 640-644.

De Panfilis, C., Meehan K.B., Cain NM, & Clarkin, J.F. (2016). Effortful Control, Rejection Sensitivity, and Borderline Personality Disorders Features in Adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders,30(5), 595-612.

Preti, E., Richetin, J., Suttora, C., & Pisani, A. (2016). Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students. Psychiatry Research, 238,109-15.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy
Treatment Description and Manuals

Yeomans, F.E., Selzer, A.M., & Clarkin, J.F. (1992). Treating the borderline patient: A contract-based approach. New York: Basic Books.

Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F., Kernberg, O.F. (1999). Psychotherapy for borderline personality. New York: John Wiley. (Published in a German version as: Psychotherapie der Borderline-Personlichkeit: Manual zur psychodynamischen Therapie. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 2001)

This was our first attempt to describe TFP in a treatment manual that could be used in empirical investigations. One can perceive the evolution of the treatment in subsequent manuals and books.

Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F., Kernberg, O.F. (2000). Psicoterapia delle personalita borderline. Milan: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., Kernberg, O.F., (2002). A Primer of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy for the Borderline Patient. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.

Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2006). Psychotherapy of borderline personality: Focusing on object relations. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Caligor, E., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2007). Handbook of dynamic psychotherapy treating higher level personality pathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2015). Transference-focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: A clinical guide. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Provides the fullest description to date of TFP for Borderline Personality, updating earlier TFP manuals with emphasis on recent developments and rich clinical examples. Accompanied by illustrative video material.

Hersh R, Caligor E, Yeomans FE (2017). Fundamentals of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy: Applications in Psychiatric and General Medical Settings. New York, Springer.

Describes the application of TFP principles across psychiatric settings in a way that will help all clinicians who deal with patients with personality disorders at the borderline level.

Caligor E, Kernberg OK, Clarkin JF, Yeomans FE (2018). Psychodynamic Therapy for Personality Pathology: Treating Self and Interpersonal Functioning. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press.

Provides a solid introduction to the concepts and techniques of psychodynamic psychotherapy from an object relations point of view and describes the application of TFP beyond the borderline level of personality organization to the full range of personality pathology. Accompanied by educational video material.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy
Outcome Studies

Clarkin, J.F., Foelsch, P.A., Levy, K.N., Hull, J.W., Delaney, J.C., Kernberg, O.F. (2001). The development of a psychodynamic treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder: A preliminary study of behavioral change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 487-495.

Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., Kernberg, O.F. (2004). The Personality Disorders Institute/Borderline Personality Disorder Research Foundation Randomized Control Trial for Borderline Personality Disorder: Rationale, Methods, and Patient Characteristics. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(1), 52-72.

Levy, K.N., Meehan, K.B., Kelly, K.M., Reynoso, J.S., Weber, M., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2006). Change in attachment patterns and reflective function in a randomized control trial of transference focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Consuting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1027-1040.

An important step in demonstrating that TFP has an effect on mental representations in addition to symptom change.

Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2007). Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: A multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 922-928.

Important study demonstrating the efficacy of TFP in comparison to DBT and a supportive treatment.

Doering, S., Horz, S., Rentrop, M., Fischer-Kern, M., Schuster, P., Benecke, C., Buchheim, A., Martius, P., & Buchheim, P. (2010). Transference-focused psychotherapy v. treatment by community psychotherapists for borderline personality disorder: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 389-395.

A crucial study in demonstrating that TFP is effective in settings other than the home base in New York.

Diamond, D., Yeomans, F.E., Stern, B., Levy, K.N., Horz, S., Doering, S., Fischer-Kern, M., Delaney, J., Clarkin, J.F. (2013): Transference-focused psychotherapy for patients with comorbid narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 33(6):527-551.

Fischer-Kern, M., Doering, S., Taubner, S., Horz, S., Zimmermann, J., Rentrop, M., Schuster, P., Buchheim, P., Buchheim, A. (2015): Transference-focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: change in reflective function. British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(2):173-174.

Sollberger, D., Gremaud-Heithz, D., Riemenschneider, A., Agarwalla, P., Benecke, C., Schwald, O., Kuchenhoff, J., Walter, M., Dammann, G. (2015): Change in Identity Diffusion and Psychopathology in a Specialized Inpatient Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 22(6):559-69.

Buchheim, A., Hörz-Sagstetter, S., Doering, S., Rentrop, M., Schuster, P., Buchheim, P., Pokorny, D., Fischer-Kern, M. (2017): Change of Unresolved Attachment in Borderline Personality Disorder: RCT Study of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 86, 314-316.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy
Process Studies

Yeomans, F.E., Selzer, M.A., & Clarkin, J.F. (1993). Studying the treatment contract in intensive psychotherapy with borderline patients. Psychiatry, 56, 254-263.

Yeomans, F.E., Gutfreund, J., Selzer, M.A., Clarkin, J.F., Hull, J.W., & Smith, T.E. (1994). Factors related to drop-outs by borderline patients: Treatment contract and therapeutic alliance. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 3(1), 16-24.

Clarkin, J.F., Hull, J.W., Yeomans, F., Kakuma, T., & Cantor, J. (1994). Antisocial traits as modifiers of treatment response in borderline patients. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 3, 307-312.

Smith, T.E., Koenigsberg, H.W., Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., & Selzer, M.A. (1995). Predictors of dropout in psychodynamic psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 4, 205-213.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy
Aspects of TFP Treatment

Clarkin, J.F. (1996). Treatment of personality disorders. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(4), 641-642.

Goodman, G., Hull, J.W., Clarkin, J.F., & Yeomans, F.E. (1998). Comorbid mood disorders as modifiers of treatment response among inpatients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 186(10), 616-622.

Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F. (2001). New Developments in the Investigation of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 14,591-595.

Diamond, D., Clarkin, JF., Levy, K., Levine, H., & Foelsch, P. (2002). The clinical implications of current attachment research for interventions with borderline patients. Journal of Infant, Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 2, 121-151.

Clarkin, J.F., Levy, Kenneth, N. (2003). A Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(2), 248-267.

Diamond, D., Stovall-McClough, C., Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N. (2003). Patient-therapist attachment in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 67(3), 224-257.

Kernberg, O.F. (2003). The Management of Affect Storms in the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of Borderline Patients. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51(2), 517-545.

Kernberg, O.F. (2003). Borderline Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Organization: Psychopathology and Psychotherapy.” In Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory and Practice. Jeffrey J. Magnavita (ed). New York,: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 92-119.

Kernberg, O.F. (2003). Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline Patients. In The Evolution of Psychotherapy: A Meeting of the Minds. Jeffery K. Zeig (ed). Phoenix: Arizona, The Milton H. Erickson Foundation Press, 14-31.

Levy, K.N., Meehan, K.B., Weber, M., Reynoso, J., & Clarkin, J.F. (2005). Attachment and borderline personality disorder: Implications for psychotherapy. Psychopathology, 38, 64-74.

Clarkin, J.F. (2006). Conceptualization and treatment of personality disorders. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 1-11.

Clarkin, J.F., & Levy, K.N. (2006). Psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder: Focusing on the mechanisms of change. Special issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 405-516.

Levy, K.N., Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F.E., Scott, L., Wasserman, R., & Kernberg, O.F. (2006). The mechanisms of change in the treatment of borderline personality disorder with transference focused psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 481-501.

Levy, K.N., Wasserman, R.H., Scott, L.N., Zach, S.E., White, C.N., Cain, N.M., Clarkin, J.F., & Kernberg, O.F. (2006). The development of a measure to assess putative mechanisms of change in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 54, 1325-1330.

Clarkin, J.F. (2007). Le development empirique de la psychotherapie focalisee sur le transfert. Sante mentale au Quebec, 32, 35-56.

Clarkin, J.F. (2007). The treatment of choice: What method fits whom? In: B. van Luyn, S. Aktar, & W. J. Livesley (Eds.): Severe personality disorders: Everyday issues in clinical practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 30-41.

Kernberg, O.F. (2007). The Almost Untreatable Narcissistic Patient, Der nahezu unbehandelbare narzisstische Patient, In Persönlichkeitsstörungen Theorie und Therapie. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 9:131 146. Also in Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 55(2), 503-539.

Kernberg, O.F. (2007). Transference and countertransference management with borderline patients. In Resonance of Suffering Countertransference in non-neurotic structures. André Green (ed). London: International Psychoanalytic Association, pp 121-148.

Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J.F., Diamond, D., & Levy, K.N. (2008). An object relations treatment of borderline patients with reflective functioning as a mechanism of change. In: F.N. Busch (Ed.), Mentalization: Theoretical considerations, research findings, and clinical implications. New York: Analytic Press, pp. 159-184.

Clarkin, J.F. (2008). Clinical approaches to Axis II comorbidity: Commentary. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 64, 222-230.

Kernberg, O.F., Yeomans, F.E., Clarkin, J., & Levy, K,N. (2008). Transference focused psychotherapy: Overview and update. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 89, 601-620.

Caligor E, Diamond D, Yeomans FE and Kernberg OF (2009). The interpretive process in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of borderline personality pathology. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 271-301.

Levy, K.N., Beeney, J.E., Wasserman, R.H., & Clarkin, J.F. (2010). Conflict begets conflict: Executive control, mental state vacillations and the therapeutic alliance in treatment of borderline personality disorder. Psychotherapy research, 20, 413-422.

Lenzenweger, M.F., Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Yeomans, F.E., & Kernberg, O.F. (2012). Predicting domains and rates of change in borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 185-195.

Meehan, K.B., Levy, K.N., & Clarkin, J.F. (2012). Construct validity of a measure of affective communication in psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 29, 145-165.

Yeomans FE, Levy K, Caligor E (2013). Transference-focused psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 449- 453.

Zerbo E, Cohen S, Bielska W, Caligor E (2013). Transference-focused psychotherapy in the general psychiatry residency: A useful and applicable model for residents in acute clinical settings. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy,41(1), 163-181.

Draijer, N., & Van Zon, P. (2013). Transference-focused psychotherapy with former child soldiers: Meeting the murderous self. Journal of trauma & dissociation, 14(2), 170-183.

Clarkin, J.F., Fonagy, P., Levy, K.N., & Bateman, A. (2015). Borderline Personality Disorder. In: P. Luyten, L.C. Mayes, P. Fonagy, M. Target, & S. Blatt (Eds.), Handbook of psychodynamic approaches to psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 353-382.

Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F., De Panfilis, C., & Levy, K. N. (2016). Strategies for constructing a more adaptive self-system. In: W.J. Livesley, G. Dimaggio, & J.F. Clarkin (Eds.), Integrated treatment for personality disorder: A modular approach. New York: Guilford, pp. 397-418.

How one might utilize TFP strategies and techniques in a treatment that integrates techniques from cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and TFP treatments for personality pathology.

Clarkin, J. F., Cain, N. M., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2017). Advances in transference-focused psychotherapy derived from the study of borderline personality disorder: clinical insights with a focus on mechanism. Current opinion in psychology.

Lenzenweger, M. F., Clarkin, J. F., Caligor, E., Cain, N. M., & Kernberg, O. F. (2018). Malignant Narcissism in Relation to Clinical Change in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Exploratory Study. Psychopathology, 1-8.

Caligor E, Clarkin JF, Kernberg OK, Yeomans FE (in press). Psychodynamic psychotherapy. In: Roberts LR (editor), American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, Seventh Edition. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press.

Caligor E, Clarkin J, Yeomans F (in press). Transference-Focused psychotherapy for borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. In: Orgrodniczuk JS, Kealy D (editor), Contemporary Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA, Academic Press.

Stern BS, Clarkin JF, Caligor E (in press). Diagnosis and Assessment. In: Yeomans FE, Levy K (editors), Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Special Issue on Borderline Personality Disorder.

 

See also full archive of publications by members of the Personality Disorders Institute.